Scientists have found that mutated DNA does indeed slow metabolism, leading to obesity
The mocked "obesity excuse" of being born with a slow metabolism is actually true for some people, say researchers. A team at the University of Cambridge has found the first proof that mutated DNA does indeed slow metabolism. The researchers say fewer than one in 100 people are affected and are often severely obese by early childhood.
The findings, published in the journal Cell, may lead to new obesity treatments even for people without the mutation. Scientists at the Institute of Metabolic Science, in Cambridge, knew that mice born without a section of DNA, a gene called KSR2, gained weight more easily.But they did not know what effect it may be having in people, so they analysed the DNA of 2,101 severely obese patients.
Some had mutated versions of KSR2. It had a twin effect of increasing their appetite while their slowing metabolism.
"You would be hungry and wanting to eat a lot, you would not want to move because of a slower metabolism and would probably also develop type 2 diabetes at a young age," lead researcher Prof Sadaf Farooqi told the BBC.
She added: "It slows the ability to burn calories and that's important as it's a new explanation for obesity."
Although It is an exciting and interesting breakthrough explaining the pathway predisposing people to obesity it does exist in obese and lean people so you still need the obesogenic environment."
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Source: BBC News
Different forms of the same food can provoke polarised reactions in individuals. Take carrots. A lot of people say they hate them cooked, and yet they enjoy them fresh. A prolific commenter on this website who goes by the handle Ubermensch1 recently declared that he or she (you never know when avatars are concerned) loves tomato ketchup but, conversely, loathes fresh tomatoes. I even have a friend who wouldn't eat an orange if you paid her, but drinking its juice is just fine. This strikes me as odd, because oranges are pretty much balls of orange juice. Each to their own world of taste.
I'll allow that ketchup and fresh tomatoes are quite different animals. Ubermensch1 hates tomatoes for their "bitter taste" and the "leathery feel" they have on the inside (really? A tomato?). Ketchup, on the other hand, is sweet and savoury – cooked or extra-ripe tomatoes provide extra–savoury, umami deliciousness – with a smooth and viscous texture. They're still both essentially tomatoey, though, whereas I have never been able to fathom how almond-flavoured items, such as amaretti biscuits and marzipan, can taste so revoltingly not of almonds.
What's wrong with carrots?
When people say they detest cooked carrots, they generally mean boiled (although the sickly-sweet glazed variety my dad used to do also springs to mind). The most obvious sensory attribute that is missing from a boiled carrot is the crunch. The sound of crunching while eating enhances our perception of freshness, irrespective of taste. And our teeth and jaws appreciate foods that allow them to do some mighty chomping once in a while. A floppy carrot, therefore, can be disconcerting.
And, of course, the effects that cooking has on the taste are myriad. They way we chew soft, cooked carrots will cause different flavours to be released, according to food scientist Lindsey Bagley. Furthermore, she says, "chemically, there are more sugars in a raw carrot than in a boiled carrot", which will have leaked sweetness into the cooking. As well as their inherent sweetness, she continues, "carrots can have a harsh, sometimes earthy or woody flavour character. And young 'baby' carrots have a green, parsley-type flavour." With minimal boiling (blanching) to retain flavour, many of these attributes will be enhanced because they are being eaten warm, which brings out and intensifies these flavours. I would argue that blanching is preferable to boiled carrots, which are eerily bland (and get extra loathesome points if they're crinkle-cut).
But that's not all. Cooking carrots also forms lipid droplets, which contain many of the flavour compounds, according to Mike Gordon, professor of food and nutritional sciences at the University of Reading: "As they move from cells into intercellular spaces, this could increase the flavour intensity." On the other hand, the "slightly acidic tissues" in carrots would lose some acidity to the water. So there's a lot going on there – all depending on the level of cooking, type of carrot and whose palate is doing the tasting.
Of course, if you roast your carrots, it's a whole other ball game. Bagley says: "The flavour and sweetness will be intensified, but also a caramelisation note is added as the sugars brown." It is easier to retain some bite in a roasted carrot, too.
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Source: The Guardian- Word of Mouth Blog